National Initiative for Leadership and Institutional Effectiveness (NILIE) has synthesized from the literature four leadership or organizational systems ranging from coercive to collaborative. Per Likert (1967), the Collaborative System, which he termed System 4, generally produced better results in terms of productivity, job satisfaction, communication, and overall organizational climate. The other systems were Consultative System 3, Competitive System 2 and Coercive System 1. Most college climates fall into the Consultative System 3 across the four factors of the climate instrument.
In April 2012, October 2014, October 2016, and October 2018 the Personal Assessment of the College Environment (PACE) survey was administered to employees at Barton Community College (Barton). The purpose of the survey was to obtain the perceptions of personnel concerning the college climate (Climate refers to the prevailing condition that affects satisfaction (e.g., morale and feelings) and productivity (e.g., task completion or goal attainment) at a particular point in time) and to provide data to assist Barton in establishing priorities for change while promoting more open and constructive communication among faculty, staff, and administrators. Using a five-point scale, respondents are asked to select their survey response to items divided into four domains: institutional structure, supervisory relationships, teamwork, and student focus.
- The Institutional Structure climate factor focuses on the mission, leadership, spirit of cooperation, structural organization, decision-making, and communication within the institution.
- Supervisory Relationships provides insight into the relationship between an employee and a supervisor and an employee’s ability to be creative and express ideas related to the employee’s work.
- Teamwork explores the spirit of cooperation within work teams and effective coordination within teams.
- The Student Focus climate factor considers the centrality of students to the actions of the institution as well as the extent to which students are prepared for post-institution endeavors.
The results from the PACE instrument in 2012, 2014, 2016, 2018 indicate a healthy campus climate with 3 out of 4 categories in Collaborative System 4 in 2018. Of the studies completed by NILIE, few institutions have been found to achieve a fully Collaborative (System 4) environment.
PACE 2018 Reports